Dong Zhongshu emphasizes the concept of governance | “unity” to consolidate centralization, through heaven and earth is the king

2022-05-20 0 By

Dong Zhongshu was a native of Jingxian County, Hebei Province. He was the most famous statesman and thinker of the Western Han Dynasty.During the reign of Emperor Jingdi of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), he began to study the gongyang Spring and Autumn Annals and served as a doctor for the Emperor of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). After emperor Wudi ascended to the throne, he was recognized by the Emperor of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) with three “good policies for sages” and served as an equal official in jiangdu.Later, he lived in the house and wrote books, and was still respected by the emperor.If the court has a big discussion, the emperor often sent people to his home to consult.Dong Zhongshu governance philosophy | the han Dynasty of the new Confucian trend of thought, he emphasized the “unification” to consolidate the feudal centralization of the “Book of the Han” said Dong Zhongshu “honest”.The historical records said that he was “expert” in his studies and advocated “great unity” in the Spring and Autumn period.In fact, at that time, he became the han Dynasty neo-Confucian trend of thought, is the theoretical founder of the two Han centralized autocratic rule.In the reign of Emperor Wudi of han Dynasty, Dong Zhongshu further deprived the power of vassals and consolidated the feudal centralization.In economy, the implementation of salt and iron battalion, equalization, transport and other policies.These measures, to a large extent, reflect the “great Unity” of Confucianism.Dong Zhongshu’s thoughts on governing the country are based on Confucian theory, but they also absorb the contents of Yin and Yang and the five elements.Thus, his theory of governance is not limited to politics, but also involves social and economic development, environmental protection and other major issues. Therefore, it can be said that his theory has far-reaching implications.2 Dong Zhongshu’s strategy for governing the country | do not imitate the king, can not pacify the world, through the heaven and earth is the “king” Dong Zhongshu believes that governing the country must be “law before the king”.Compared with western thinkers who pursued democratic politics, Chinese Confucianism took a completely opposite road to democratic politics.In 134 BC, after emperor Wudi of han ascended the throne, he presented more than 100 outstanding scholars to the supreme level and held a seminar on the governance strategy of the Han Dynasty.At this meeting, Dong Zhongshu, a Confucian scholar of The Han Dynasty, answered the question of governing the country put forward by Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty and provided a complete set of governing the country under the guidance of Confucianism.Emperor Wudi first explained the purpose of the meeting, he said: “I have inherited the highest status and the best virtue of the former emperor, to be passed on forever and extended to the infinite future, this task is huge, and the duty is very important, so I think about this problem from morning to night, but did not solve the problem.That is why I have invited literary scholars to make their own suggestions.Based on the classic Spring and Autumn Annals, Dong Zhongshu established a new Confucianism theory by integrating the religious doctrines of Heaven and Taoism, legalism, Taoism and Yin-yang since the Zhou Dynasty.He helped Emperor Wudi establish the legitimacy of Confucianism through the Three Strategies of Heaven and Man.Since then, Confucianism not only became the official philosophy pursued by the rulers of the Han Dynasty, but also became the mainstream consciousness of Chinese society after the Han Dynasty.So, what fascinating “political products” did Dong Zhongshu provide for the imperial intellectuals of the Han Dynasty?In Dong zhongshu’s concept of governing the country, the power of the monarch comes from heaven, that is, “the divine right of the monarch”.Dong Zhongshu believes that the ancient text, three paintings and even among them called the king.Three painting, heaven and earth and people also.And even among them, the way is also.Take heaven and earth and man, think consistent and connected, not the king can do so?During the Warring States Period (475-221 B.C.), against the background of feudal lords contending for hegemony, the Chinese ideological circle presented a situation of a hundred schools of thought contending.However, the so-called “hundred schools” are actually mainly composed of Yin and Yang, Confucianism, Mohism, name, Law and Taoism.According to “On the Key Points of the Six Families”, the world is the same and all thoughts return to different paths. Yin and Yang, Confucianism, ink, fame, law and morality are all schools of thought. They are all for the purpose of better governing the country.Observe the art of Yin and Yang, great and taboo, so that people are bound and feared.After comparing these theories, Emperor Wudi chose Confucianism.People often say that Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty adopted Dong Zhongshu’s theory of “The Spring and Autumn Period and the Dew” and carried out the theory of “eliminating other schools of thought and only following Confucianism”. In fact, this is not 100% true. It simply regarded Xunzi and Dong Zhongshu as Confucianism.In fact, Dong Zhongshu proposed “unification of the Spring and Autumn Period” and “dethroning hundreds of schools, in recognition of the six Classics”.Generally speaking, the Han dynasty did use xunzi and Dong Zhongshu’s theory of governing the country, which was xunzi’s thought of “combining the rules with the rules” and “morality as the principal and punishment as the auxiliary”. It was not a pure Confucian theory.Dong Zhongshu answered liu Che’s questions about the ancient and modern governance and the relationship between heaven and man, which is known as “the three policies of heaven and man” in history.In the countermeasures, Dong Zhongshu proposed to dethrone the name of punishment, worship Confucianism, Ming Jiao, xing university, so that the county and the country dedicated to seeking talents.At the same time, he advocated the grand unity theory of “The Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ram” and advocated in the ideological field that “those who are not in the six arts and Confucius’ skills should avoid their ways and do not make progress.”It can be seen that Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty systematically accepted Dong zhongshu’s thoughts on governing the country. At that time, he only employed Confucian scholars, and the history says that “all other schools of thought were rejected and Confucianism was respected only”.As a matter of fact, Dong zhongshu’s learning was based on the Gong Yang Spring and Autumn Annals, which combined the theory of Heaven and Taoism since the Zhou Dynasty with the theory of Yin and Yang and the Five Elements, absorbing the thoughts of legalists, Daoists and Yin-yang schools.He gave systematic answers to a series of philosophical, political, social and historical questions raised by the society at that time.This enabled Dong Zhongshu to push Confucianism and Confucianism into a prosperous period, and he himself became a successful practitioner of Confucianism.Of course, Dong zhongshu’s thoughts on governing the country were mainly derived from his understanding of Confucian theories. At that time, many people said that he had learned “five Classics and hundreds of doctrines, and was good at discussing and writing”.To put it bluntly, this Dong Zhongshu was proficient in the Five Classics, able to hold opinions and good at writing articles.As a matter of fact, “virtue mainly and punishment auxiliary” is also an important part of Dong Zhongshu’s theory of royal Road. Dong Zhongshu’s theory of royal road “morality mainly and punishment auxiliary” is the “Confucian classics” in the form of “Spring and Autumn Gongyang studies”, which not only determines the development direction of modern Confucian classics in Han and Wei dynasties, but also has an important influence on the ethical philosophy of ancient Confucian classics.It is said that after the Han Dynasty, “Yangde Yin punishment” is the ideological core of the judicial theory in all dynasties, and is the theoretical source and ideological basis of the ancient criminal law practice of “quoting the sutras and executing them in autumn and winter”.In short, dong zhongshu emphasized the concept of governing the country, more emphasis on the use of “unity” thinking to consolidate the centralization of the imperial court, that through heaven and earth is the king, at the same time, also believed that morality is the main punishment is a necessary measure.Let’s talk about dong Zhongshu’s story. Welcome to follow me!Author | Gong Liuhui