Youth Daily published: Lantern Festival is how to become “Chinese carnival”

2022-05-06 0 By

The fifteenth day of the first lunar month is China’s traditional festival – the Lantern Festival.In the Western Han Dynasty, Emperor Liu Che ordered Sima Qian et al discussed the “early calendar”, the establishment of the first day of the first month of the “year’s head” status, also let the fifteenth day of the first month of the New Year become the first full moon night.On this day, people pray to god for abundant rain and a good harvest of crops, women make a promise to find a good marriage, and the royal family pays homage to the Emperor of Heaven and the supreme god taiyi God of the Han Dynasty.”Shiji · Music book” contains: “Han family to the first month on the xin temple too a spring, to faint night temple, to Ming.”This is also seen by many as the beginning of the tradition of offering sacrifices to the gods and observing lanterns on the 15th day of the first lunar month.In the Yongping years of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Emperor Mingdi introduced Buddhism to the Central Plains. In order to promote Buddhism, he ordered the 15th night of the first lunar month in the palace and temples to “light the Buddha”.With the expansion of the influence of Buddhist culture, the addition of Taoist culture and the addition of royal sacrificial ceremony, the custom of burning lanterns on the 15th day of the first lunar month gradually spread across the country.In the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Emperor Liang Wudi believed in Buddhism, so on the fifteenth day of the first month in the big Zhang palace lights.During the Tang Dynasty, the cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries became closer, and Buddhism flourished. Officials and common people generally burned lanterns to offer Buddha worship on this day, and then lights were all over the people.Since then, lanterns on the 15th day of the first lunar month became legal.From the Song Dynasty, the word “Yuanxiao” began to appear in the literature and classical books, such as the Southern Song Dynasty Zhou Biga’s “Pingyuan Continued Manuscript” contains “Yuanxiao boiled fuyuanzi, predecessors seem not to have this”.Yuan Dynasty has “love the Lantern Festival 35 scenery, moonlight, brilliant lights”, the Ming Dynasty Lantern Festival will last a long time, from the eighth to the seventeenth day of the first month, the whole ten days to show singing and dancing.The Qing Dynasty, the Manchu entered the Central Plains, the court no longer do Lantern Festival, but the folk Lantern Festival is still spectacular.Thus, the Lantern Festival with its unique cultural heritage and natural cultural affinity, by people’s support and rooted in the hearts of the people.As the Lantern Festival was born at the beginning of the royal sacrificial functions, the night of the Lantern Festival needs to worship Buddha all night, the curfew was suspended.On this night, people can not only offer sacrifices and pray for blessings, but also be a rare opportunity to go out and socialize with ancient women who have long been restricted by etiquette and laws, especially those who are confined to their homes.People free to go out, play watching lanterns, is also a good time to young men and women the opportunity to meet Mr Right, has been “to see a lot of elegance and wit to pledge, whispered together” (the northern song dynasty Li Bing “female comb (has)”), “he found thousands of baidu, suddenly look back, that person but in that lights dim” (xin qiji sapphire case, yuan evening).The Lantern Festival, regarded as the end of the Spring Festival, is the climax and end of the Spring Festival.Folk often say “Chinese New Year”, “have” both the New Year and the old year.People from the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month to the lunar New Year’s Day, is across the old year;From the first to the fifteenth day of the first month, officially across the New Year.The Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first lunar month is the last time for people to get out of their families before the official work starts.All activities of the Lantern Festival take “trouble” as the core. People dance dragon lanterns, set up flower lanterns, walk on stilts and offer sacrifices.Different from the family reunion “Shou Sui” during the “old Year”, this kind of “闹” is closer to the collective nature, which is the first large-scale collective activity approaching the attribute of “carnival” in the New Year.It also means the end of the “year”, people have to carry out a New Year’s production and life, and return to the social order.”Back to society” people, in the way to create the Lantern Festival is not stingy talent, reflects the colorful life of ancient Chinese cities.When people offer sacrifices to ancestors and pray for prosperity, there are both grand and grand ceremonies, and they often add some entertainment color to them.Sui Dynasty, “Sui book · Liu for biography” records: “steal see Beijing city, hence and outside the state, every month to look at the night, fill the streets, gather play friends to travel.It’s drumming and grumbling and burning.People wear animal face, men for women, advocating acrobatics, strange shaped.To use mandy for pleasure, with little use for laugh, both inside and outside view, does not avoid once.”It describes the people of Beijing and other cities, gathering and entertaining on the night of the tenth and fifth month of the first lunar month, with loud drums and music, torches shining on the ground, and the parade teams filling the streets. It has the style of “Halloween” and “Carnival” in modern Western society, and the lively scene of yuanxiao can be seen.But it was a new urban custom at the time, and was attacked by conservative officials who wrote that the festival should be banned, regardless of gender differences and against feudal etiquette.In the Tang Dynasty, there was a curfew in the capital, and those who walked at night without permission were punished severely.However, during the Lantern Festival, special permission is granted to open the gate and let people enjoy themselves for three nights.Tang Zhongzong Li Xian also took thousands of princesses, maids of honor and other people, travel in disguise, step on the moon to enjoy the lanterns, and asked the maids of honor to “dress luo Qi, drag brocade, yao Zhu Cui, perfumed powder”.Liu Su of Tang Dynasty “New Words of Tang Dynasty” remember: “The capital of the first month, sheng acted the role of the lantern shadow will, Jin Wu relaxation, permission to travel at night.Your courtiers and their relatives will go out at night.”In the unprecedented strength of the Tang Dynasty, the east capital of Luoyang, Yangzhou, yangzhou, northwest Liangzhou and other places of the Lantern Festival is also lively, hanging lanterns everywhere, people also made a huge lamp wheel, lamp tree, lamp posts, etc., full of fire tree silver flower.The Lantern Festival in the Song Dynasty reached a new height in the feudal society.The Northern Song Dynasty “Tokyo Menghualu” contains: “Yuanxiao on the 15th day of the first month…Strange skill ability, song and dance, scale and scale, noisy music more than ten li, hit ball cu踘, step rope on the pole……To the seventh day of the first month, people make the words go out, lamp hill color, jinbi phase shooting, splendid…Horizontal three doors, each with color knot gold book big name, yue ‘all gate’, yue ‘around the door of the guard’, on the big name yue ‘propaganda and people with joy’…Xuande Building, all hanging yellow edge, curtain one, is the throne……Ten thousand people are watching under the terrace, yue people lead ten thousand people mountain call.”The Lantern Festival is a time for people to take a break from the strict moral order, enjoy fun, enjoy the lights, and get close to the king.Southern Song Dynasty, according to Wu Zimu “Dream Liang Lu” contained: “today hangzhou (Hangzhou) Yuan Evening, since the beginning of fourteen, on the chamber money wine.Fifteen nights, shuaichen out of the street pressure, in the usual special chamber dance team.Those who buy and sell in the neighborhood distribute money to each other.This year and year prefectural branch of branch, ordinary several body court and people with the meaning of joy……More and lights of every family, everywhere orchestra, such as Jiang qinghe Square inspector, strange tea different soup, along with the cable should be, point moonlight big bubble lamp, brilliant room, who do not stop and view.”There are dances and dances in the lanterns, and the government doles out “starting work benefits” generously. Abundant festival activities include the good fortune of wishing the start of work and prosperity. The government and the people are happy with this, and the festival is still hot.The Lantern Festival in Ming Dynasty was the most public festival in the city. Officials in the capital had ten days off, and a lantern market was formed outside Donghuamen. The traders selling lamps, customers buying lamps and tourists watching lamps came in an endless stream and were very busy.”The prosperity of the world lies in salt.They are not afraid of people.”(In Ming Dynasty Liu Ruoyu’s Drinking Zhong Zhi) To describe the Lantern Festival in the south, Xie Zhaozhi from Ming Dynasty said: “in a rich and fetish family, there will be a swallow in a meadow.Visitors scholars, chariots and horses butian, the night is scattered.”Zhang Dai of Ming Dynasty, in his Tao ‘an Dream, recorded the scene of lanterns on Longshan Mountain in Hangzhou: “There are no lanterns on the mountain, no seats on the lanterns, no people at the seats, and no people singing and advocating.”Visible at that time yuanxiao grand occasion.The Lantern Festival of the Qing Dynasty was still lively. Before the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the lights were lit all night from the 13th to the 16th day of the first lunar month in the capital.In Beijing in the late Qing Dynasty, the Lantern Festival was the most popular in Dongsi Pai Lou and Di ‘anmen, followed by the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of War, and East an ‘anmen, Xinjiekou and Xsi Pai Lou “also a little considerable”.Tianjin Shangyuanri, “Thoroughfare decorated with lanterns, flower torches, everywhere singing and dancing”;Around the Lantern Festival in Suzhou, every family’s gong and drum beat up, “or in groups of three or five, each holding a device, children around to line, and line and hit, full of bustle, common call ma gong and drum”.No one loves the Lantern Festival nowadays, the Lantern Festival has gone through thousands of years, but it is still one of the most important traditional festivals in the hearts of Chinese people, and is also highly regarded in overseas Chinese communities.In addition to the han, manchu, Korean nationality, the hezhen nationality and the Mongolian, daur, ewenki, olunchun, hui, xibe, Tibetan, bai, naxi, miao, yao, minority, zhuang, buyi, li, kelao, and many other ethnic minority compatriots, will also have a series of unique activity on the Lantern Festival.Gannan area of dongshan turn lights, xiasi miao dragon hiss flower of local customs, the west jiangxi hakka Lantern Festival, guizhou, jiang’s bombing dragon customs, heihe aihui, a county in heilongjiang province of heilongjiang province the Lantern Festival, lanterns of zibo in shandong province and Beijing miyun jiuqu river array light common 27 items such as local Lantern Festival customs, has been included in the list of state-level intangible representative projects.From many traditional forms of folk entertainment, we can still see the shadow of revelry in lanterns in ancient times.The Lantern Festival was a respite from the daily routine of life and work, and a respite from the pressures of feudal etiquette and secular affairs.This grand festival transcends the boundaries of time and space, becomes a field and cultural image regardless of nationality and class, and also provides a superior carrier for the inheritance of Chinese folk culture.This “carnival” with Chinese characteristics and cultural connotation, accompanied by warm spring lights, silver moon shine on the sky, noisy and romantic, how to teach people not to love it?(The writer is a staff member of the Comprehensive Business Department of Gong Wang Fu Museum, Ministry of Culture and Tourism.